Acts of violence against demonstrators in Bahri and Al Siteen in Nov 2021April 3, 2023
This investigation examines the violations and acts of violence against demonstrators in Khartoum on 17 November 2021.
- Initial Summary
- What happened (and when)?
- The First location: Bahri City
- Analysis of the first video:
- International Hospital
- The second location: Al Siteen street in Khartoum
- The International Community
- Potential Perpetrators
- Use of force under international law
Table Of Contents
- Place of Incident: Khartoum, Bahri Al Moasasa 32.531134,15.641423 and Al Siteen Street 32.579082,15.562291.
- Date: Wednesday, 17 November 2021
- Time: Between 12:00 and 16:00 Sudan time
- Victims: 15 people, video footage shows seven fatalities. Others, including a journalist, were injured.
- Type of attack: Tear gas and live ammunition
- Munitions likely used: GL-202 tear gas grenade
- Potentially responsible: Central Reserve Forces, riot police, and Sudanese police forces.
On Wednesday, 17 November 2021, Areas in Bahri City and Al Siteen Street in Khartoum witnessed acts of violence between 12:00 and 16:00 local time, which resulted in casualties and injuries. Videos show local protests and demonstrators marching and chanting in a call for a civilian-led government. Demonstrators were arrested and attacked by security and police forces—as shown in videos and open source information—using tear gas and live ammunition.
According to the Central Committee of Sudanese Doctors, the violence on that day resulted in the death of 15 people. Videos show seven demonstrators killed—including a woman—additional information was found online about five people killed in the incident.
Available open sources claim that the possible perpetrators responsible for the use of force against demonstrators are the Sudanese government riot police, the Central Reserve Forces, the Sudanese police forces, and additional individuals in plainclothes. These claims match video footage showing forces present at the scenes of the incident in the official uniforms of Sudanese forces.
This report is a continuation in a series of investigations into the coup files.
- The preservation, analysis, and verification of 17 videos from Khartoum and filmed in two areas, Bahri and Al Siteen Street, showing the moment of violence against the protestors with live bullets and/or tear gas.
- A geolocation of 13 videos filmed in the Bahri area:ten were geolocated to an area between Al-Maouna Street and Bahri Al Moasasa, extending to Al Zaim Al Azhari Street. Three videos document the International Hospital where those injured or killed as a result of the incident were treated. Four videos were geolocated to Al Siteen Street.
- The comparison of uniforms of the Sudanese police, riot control, and Central Reserve Forces with what’s shown in video footage of the attacks on protestors.
- The comparison of landmarks in the visual content with satellite imagery.
Sudanese Archive used a standardised methodology to archive and verify open source information of human rights violations. More information on the methodology is available here.
What happened (and when)?
On Wednesday, 17 November 2021, between 12:00 - 16:00 local time, demonstrations in Bahri city and Al Siteen street in Khartoum were attacked by forces allegedly affiliated with Sudanese security forces, police, riot control, and Central Reserve Forces, resulting in 15 fatalities as well as the injury and arrest of others. Nine videos show protestors attacked by what appear to be Sudanese security forces, Weapons are shown in six videos, and apparent gunfire can be heard in nine videos. Seven videos show white smoke, which may be indicative of the use of tear gas. Video footage also shows what appears to be a whip that was allegedly used to assault a protestor. In another video clip, batons are shown as used to assault demonstrators, including a journalist. In two videos, demonstrators are shown throwing what appear to be stones at the forces present in the areas.
The First location: Bahri City
Two live broadcasts on Facebook, posted by the same account, show two demonstrations starting from the Al Shabiya neighbourhood to Al Maouna Street near the New Life Medical Complex and extending along Al Maouna Street to the intersection of Bahri Al Moasasa and Al Zaim Al Azhari Street near the Maa Al Dahab Perfumes store.
The live stream of the first demonstration was uploaded at 12:30 Sudan time and lasted one hour and seven minutes, and the second live stream of the second demonstration was at 14:26 Sudanese time and lasted 49 minutes.
Shadow analysis conducted using the Suncalc tool of the first video confirms that the first live stream was likely filmed at 12:30 local time. This corresponds to the time the first live stream was posted on Facebook. The second live stream reveals that clashes may have continued until approximately 15:15 local time.
Screenshot of the location of the sun and shadows on Al Maouna Street in Bahri city around 12:30 PM Sudan time on 17 November 2021, using the Suncalc tool.
Analysis of the first video:
The initial seconds of the first video show demonstrators at the intersection of Al Shabiya street and Al Maouna street. The sounds of apparent gunfire are heard at second 0:25, followed by the sound of intermittent gunfire at minute 03:00.
A comparison of landmarks in a screenshot from the first video with satellite imagery from Google Earth pro of Bahri, Khartoum on 10/16/2022.
The first appearance of an injured person in the video is at minute 03:36, showing traces of blood on a person whose hands were tied on Al Shabiya street.
A screenshot from the first video of an injured person.
Geolocating where the injured person in the first video appears using satellite imagery from Google Earth Pro on 10/16/2022.
The following stills from the first video show the arrival of demonstrators onto Al Maouna street.
Matching landmarks on Al Maouna street as shown in the first video with satellite imagery from Google Earth Pro on 10/16/2022.
Landmarks from the first video compared with satellite imagery from Google Earth Pro on 10/16/2022.
At minute 16:39, the footage shows both people opposite the demonstrators in the video and vehicles of what the source of the video claims belong to Sudanese security forces and police.
Determining the location of alleged security forces in the first video, using satellite imagery from Google Earth Pro on 11/02/2021.
The alleged forces are about 184 metres away from the demonstrators in the video.
The distance between alleged security forces and demonstrators as shown on Google Earth Pro
Footage in the first video also shows demonstrators on a side street parallel to Al Maouna street and separated from it by the New Life Medical Complex.The apparent sound of gunshots can be heard in the video.
A comparison of landmarks from the first video of the side street parallel to Al Maouna street with satellite imagery from Google Earth Pro on 10/16/2022.
At minute 59:02, a demonstrator appears carrying a GL-202 type tear gas canister. According to the manufacturer CONDOR, the canister has a range of 160 metres and is made from aluminium.
The top image is a screenshot of the tear gas canister from the first video, below is what the canister looks like on the manufacturer’s website.
Analysis of the second video
Footage from the second video shows demonstrations and the firing of tear gas canisters and the shooting of protesters. There appear to be more demonstrators in the second video than the first. The video lasts about 50 minutes and starts at 14:26 local time.
Matching landmarks in a screenshot from the second video showing Al Maouna Street with satellite imagery from Google Earth Pro on 10/16/2022.
A screenshot of the second video with a red circle added by Sudanese Archive to indicate tear gas fired at protesters near the Al Laziz Restaurant on Al Maouna street, compared with satellite imagery from Google Earth Pro on 10/16/2022.
The violence was concentrated specifically on Al Maouna Street and the intersection of Al-Azhari street and Al-Maouna street. While the demonstrators were forced to turn back on Al Maouna Street due to attacks by the security forces, some of the demonstrators were hiding in the side streets intersecting with Al Maouna Street, such as Al Shabiya Street.
The video shows injured and killed demonstrators falling in place as other protesters carry them towards the New Life Medical Clinics Complex for first aid. The video also shows rising white smoke and blood scattered on the streets. Apparent gunshots can also be heard in the video.
A screenshot from the second video showing demonstrators carrying the injured.
Screenshot from the second video showing a tear gas canister on Al Maouna street compared with satellite imagery from Google Earth Pro on 10/16/2022
The second video shows landmarks in the location of demonstrations, which can be matched to storefronts available on Google Maps including “Delicious, L’Oréal Khairi Driving School, Man Care Barbershop, Palace Salon, and Maa Al-Dahab for Perfumes.”
A number of screenshots from the second video showing Al Laziz Restaurant, New Life Medical Complex, Man Care Barbershop, Al Qasr Barbershop, and Universal Electronics Store compared with satellite imagery from Google Earth Pro on 10/16/2022.
The video shows white smoke—potentially tear gas—and the apparent sound of gunfire can be heard in the video at minute 19:00.
In the video, demonstrators are shown running quickly for several seconds—during this period nothing else can be seen other than the demonstrators’ feet.
At minute 19:43, the video shows the demonstrators again as well as white smoke at the intersection of Al Maouna street and Al Azhari street.
A screenshot from the second video showing white smoke—potentially tear gas—coming from the intersection of Al Maouna and Al Azhari street and satellite imagery from Google Earth Pro on 11/02/2021.
The demonstrators appear again in the video, walking and stopping at Maa Al-Dahab for Perfumes shop at 22:00, suggesting that security forces may have retreated.
Screenshots from the second video showing the protester’s movements at the end of Al Maouna street and Al Azhari street compared with satellite imagery from Google Earth Pro on 11/02/2021.
After a minute and a half at minute 23:00 of the second video, sounds of apparent gunfire can be heard while demonstrators raise their hands and chant “civilian, civilian, down with military rule.” One of the demonstrators can be observed raising the flag of Sudan.
A screenshot from the second video of demonstrators gathering at the Maa Al-Dahab for Perfumes shop where smoke potentially from tear gas and the Sudanese flag is visible, compared with satellite imagery from Google Earth Pro on 11/02/2021.
Demonstrators are then shown turning back after the apparent sound of gunfire and tear gas canisters.
Between minutes 25:00-26:00, one of the demonstrators in the video says, “The police are using live bullets.” The videographer is shown running quickly and trying to hide. A clip from the video shows the street empty of demonstrators after the sound of apparent gunfire.
A screenshot from the second video showing Al Maouna street empty of protestors after the apparent sound of multiple gunshots.
At minute 27:09, the videographer moves towards a small gathering of demonstrators. The videographer states “Injured by live bullets” and then repeats, “hit by live bullets.”
At minute 29:17, the video shows what appears to be a group of demonstrators trying to help another injured demonstrator who is wearing a blue tank top and has a red patch on his back.
At minute 36:30, demonstrators can be heard chanting “There is no god but God” and others carrying a demonstrator wounded in the head with live bullets, running with him towards the hospital. Another voice can be heard in the videosaying: “He died.”
A minute after this scene, the video shows another group of demonstrators carrying what appears to be an injured person with a red spot on their upper jacket. Those around the person being carried repeat “There is no god but God,“.
Screenshots from the second video of Al Maouna street showing demonstrators carrying the injured.
The video shows blood on the ground. The videographer of the video says: : “It is as if it was a battle…but the people will win. The revolution is a people’s revolution. The blood on the ground has not dried yet.”
A screenshot from the second video of blood on the ground along Al Maouna street.
A screenshot from the second video showing a demonstrator holding the badge of a Sudanese soldier. Below is a picture of the Sudanese military ranks with the badge for the rank of first sergeant boxed in red. Bottom photo is from the Wad Al Mahi Blog.
At minute 40:00 in the second video, demonstrators are shown moving forward and gathering at the Maa Al-Dahab for Perfumes shop once again, clapping, singing and cheering.
At minute 41:00, demonstrators are shown carrying another demonstrator after the apparent sound of gunfire.
A screenshot of the second video showing an injured man lying on Al Maouna street.
At minute 41:59 in the second video, the demonstrators quickly run back and position themselves again in front of the New Life Medical Clinics Complex with the apparent sound of gunfire in the video and visible smoke—potentially tear gas fumes.
At minute 43:59 in the same video, the video shows Al Shabiya Street, the voice of demonstrators can be heard stating: ” A new injury, a new injury.”
The video shows demonstrators carrying and attempting to treat an injured person..
A screenshot from the second video shows demonstrators carrying an injured person and running with him on Al Shabiya street branching from Al Maouna street in Bahri city.
The video ends with the demonstrators hiding on Al Shabiya Street, branching from Al Maouna Street. The videographer hides behind an unknown object. Apparent gunfire can be heard in the video. .
The violent incidents took place on Al Maouna street and extended into the intersection of Al Moasasa and Al Azhari street at the Maa Al-Dahab for Perfumes shop all the way to the Al Awal Pharmacy. On the map, the distance between Maa Al Dahab for Perfumes shop, Al Moasasa intersection, and Al Awal pharmacy is 120 metres.
A screenshot of the second video showing Al Awal Pharmacy on Al Azhari street compared with satellite imagery from Google Earth Pro on 10/16/2022.
The distance between Al Awal Pharmacy and where demonstrators gathered at the Maa Al Dahab for Perfumes shop as shown on Google Earth Pro on 10/16/2022.
In addition to Al Maouna Al Shaibya, and Al Azhari streets, another video uploaded on the Facebook the day after the incident, shows another location of the demonstrations including Al Rabiata Shambat Square and the Al Taawun Stadium on Al Mouna Bahri street . Apparent gunfire can be heard in the video and protestors are shown running.
Landmarks visible in the video from Sudanese Accounts of Al Rabiata Shambat Square and the adjacent Rabiata Al Taawun Square with satellite imagery from Google Earth Pro Feb 2022.
Although Security forces and police are not shown in the video, apparent white smoke, similar to tear gas, is visible. Demonstrators are also shown carrying a woman who was injured and killed. It was later found, according to the Central Committee of Sudanese Doctors, that the woman killed was Sitt Al Nafur Ahmed Bakkar, who was shot in the jaw.
Two screenshots from the Sudanese Accounts video showing white smoke in Al Rabiata Shambat Square.
Screenshots from the Sudanese Accounts video showing the moment and location of the injury of Sitt Al Nafur Ahmed Bakkar, who was later found to have been killed, in comparison with satellite imagery from Google Earth Pro on Feb 2022.
The injured and killed demonstrators were transferred to the International Hospital on Al Zaim Al Azhari street. Near the hospital protesters gathered chanting, “Down with military rule, free revolutionaries, we will complete the journey.”
Inside the International Hospital in Bahri, a video shows injured people, one of whom appears to be a young man with undetermined injuries and another an injured woman carried by others on a stretcher that appears to have a leg injury.
At minute 01:27 in the same video, a third person appears, apparently deceased as demonstrators covered the person’s face. This person was wearing a white robe and in the background the videographer’s voice can be heard saying, “November 17.”
Screenshots from a video showing the transportation of the injured and killed to the International Hospital.
The white robe worn by an individual featured in a video mentioned above matches that of an individual who appears in another video geolocated to Bahri City on Al Maouna street. The video shows a person who was shot in the face before demonstrators took him to the hospital.
Available open source information identified the man as Awad Abdel Karim Abdel Majid. This identity is confirmed by the Central Committee of Sudanese Doctors, which announced his death along with information concerning his age and cause of death - the statement claimed the individual was 70 years old and that he had been shot in the face.
A screenshot from a video showing Awad Abdel karim Abdel Majid, who was allegedly shot on Al Maouna street in Bahri city.
The video at second 0:08 shows another person that appears to have been shot in the neck. Protesters are shown in the video running and carrying him. The Individual is shown wearing a red shirt and white shorts, with parts of his body exposed.
Available open source information identified the victim as Hatem Muhammad Hussein. A statement by the Central Committee of Sudanese Doctors about the same event states that Hatem Muhammad Hussein, who was 18 years old, died on November 17th as a result of being shot in the neck.
Screenshots from a video showing Hatem Muhammad’s injury on Al Maouna street in Bahri.
The sign of the International Hospital is shown in a video posted by Dalia Al Taher on Twitter on 18 November 2021. The video shows two people who appear dead and includes the sound of protestors chanting “There is no god but God.” One of the individuals shown in the video was Hatem Muhammad Hussein, who also appears in a previous video. The video also shows another injured person being carried into the hospital.
Screenshots from a video showing the transportation of the injured and killed to the International Hospital.
An annotated Google Earth Pro image showing the location of the International Hospital on Al Zaim Al Azhari street on 10/16/2022.
The second location: Al Siteen street in Khartoum
At around 12:00 on Wednesday, 17 November 2021, Al Sittin street witnessed violence between demonstrators and what they claim are Central Reserve Forces, police forces, and Sudanese riot police with live bullets and tear gas as well as beatings with whips. The violence injured others and resulted in the death of one person.
Four videos from Al Siteen street describes the violence against demonstrators during protests that began on 17 November 2021 against what they call a military coup.
A video posted on Twitter on 17 November 2021, shows what appear to be the Central Reserve Forces, riot police, and Sudanese police carrying weapons.
Shadow analysis using the Suncalc tool indicates that the video was most likely taken at 12:00 local time, which corresponds to the time the video was uploaded.
Screenshot of the SunCalc tool showing the position of the sun and shadows on Al Siteen street around 12:00 Sudan time on 17 November 2021.
Screenshot from a video showing Central Reserve forces, Sudanese police, and riot police together in front of the Jawharat Al Siteen shopping mall in comparison with satellite imagery 10/16/2022.
In the video, one of the demonstrators is shown falling at second 00:19, and others are shown carrying him while the apparent sound of gunshots can be heard in the background of the video. The video was geolocated to Al Firdous Street, opposite the Jawharat Al-Steen shopping mall.
A screenshot from a video showing injured protesters on Al Firdous street near Samah Bakery in comparison to satellite imagery from Google Earth Pro in June 2022.
Another video from Al Siteen Street, next to the Aspawa restaurant, shows people wearing beige camouflage uniforms and carrying weapons. The uniforms match those of the Sudanese Central Reserve Forces. One of the individuals is shown firing what appears to be tear gas s. A white car also appears in the video. The driver of the white car appears to talk to one of the individuals in uniform in the video. The caption of the video claims that the drivers of the cars are involved with the Sudanese security forces and that these private white cars appear repeatedly in other clips.
Matching landmarks featured in a video showing members of what appear to be the Central Reserve forces on Al Siteen street near Aspawa Restaurant in comparison with satellite imagery from Google Earth Pro on 10/16/2022.
Screenshots of a video showing the moment a tear gas canister was fired by Central Reserve forces and the moment it fell near demonstrators on Al Siteen street.
The video shows the arrest and beating of a protestor with a whip carried by the Central Reserve Forces. Five other personnel are shown in the video in desert camouflage uniforms, some with machine guns.
Screenshots from a video showing Central Reserve Forces assaulting a person with a whip on Al Siteen street near the Crystal Barbershop.
Another video shows demonstrators on Al Siteen street near the Al Amarat Center and forces that appear to be affiliated with the Sudanese Central Reserve Froces and riot police.
Screenshots from a video showing demonstrators on Al Siteen street near Amarat Centre. The top two images are from Google Maps.
Matching landmarks identified above with satellite imagery from Google Earth Pro of Amarat Centre in Feb 2021.
Above is a screenshot from a video of demonstrations on Al Siteen street with two store fronts of the Sitham clothing store and a lab in front of the Ajmal Beauty Centre.
A comparison of landmarks from the previous image with satellite imagery from Google Earth Pro in Feb 2021.
The video shows pick-up trucks carrying what appear to be soldiers wearing desert camouflage uniforms similar to the uniforms of the Central Reserve Forces. Soldiers are shown chasing demonstrators near Amarat Centre, Sitham store near the Ajmal Beauty Centre, and the lab storefront. The video shows what appear to be riot police in blue camouflage uniforms. Cars and soldiers in the video are shown chasing protestors and firing what appears to be tear gas.
Above is a screenshot from a video showing demonstrations on 17 November 2021 and forces in blue camouflage uniforms belonging to the Sudanese riot police.
Below is a picture of three Sudanese riot police in blue camouflage uniforms—source for the bottom image is the Sudanese Police Facebook page.
Above are two screenshots from a video of the demonstrations on 17 November 2021, showing soldiers in desert camouflage uniforms similar to the uniforms of the Central Reserve Forces.
Below is a picture of soldiers from the Central Reserve Forces in Sudan from the Sudan Central Reserve Forces Facebook page.
Screenshots from a video showing the moment apparent tear gas canisters were fired. People are shown wearing blue camouflage uniforms that match the uniforms of Sudanese riot police.
Screenshots from a video showing soldiers, dressed in uniforms matching those of the Sudanese Central Reserve Forces, chasing protestors and firing what appears to be tear gas. The video shows four pickup trucks with soldiers carrying weapons.
According to the location of prominent landmarks shown in footage including the presence of demonstrators near the lab sign at the Ajmal Beauty Centre and the location of soldiers across from the street near the building that houses the Sitham store, the distance between the demonstrators and the soldiers can be estimated to be around 130 metres.
A screenshot of Google Earth Pro showing the distance between demonstrators and Sudanese soldiers on Al Siteen street in Khartoum in June 2022.
The blue rectangle indicates the location of the demonstrators on Al Siteen street and the green rectangle indicates the location of the Sudanese riot police as shown on Google Earth Pro in June 2022.
A video posted by Twitter on 18 November 2021 of Al Siteen street, shows a protester wearing a white jacket with apparent traces of blood. In the video, the voice of demonstrators leaving the scene can be heard saying: “He was shot in the head”.
Screenshot from a video showing a demonstrator shot in the head.
Of the 17 videos directly related to the two incidents of violence in Bahri city and Al Siteen street, seven videos show what appears to be seven fatalities, including a woman. Six videos show what appears to be direct injuries to the head and face, including three head injuries, an eye injury, a neck injury, a face injury, while one video shows a chest injury.
Fatalities and injuries shown in videos are corroborated by a statement issued by the Central Committee of Sudanese Doctors on its Facebook page on 17 November 2021. The Central Committee of Sudanese Doctors stated 15 people, including a woman, had been killed and dozens wounded by live ammunition. The committee stated of “10 direct sniper hits to the head, eyes, neck, and face and ten injuries to the abdomen and chest.”
Available open source documentation names five victims:
- Muzammil Al-Junaid Suleiman, 32 years old, was shot in the eye.
- Sitt al-Nafour Ahmed, 25, was shot in the head.
- Ahmed Ali, 27 years old, was shot directly in the head.
- Awad Abdel Karim Abdel Majed, 70 years old, was shot in the face.
- Hatem Muhammad Hussain, 18 years old, was shot in the neck.
The videos also revealed other victims such as those who were assaulted with a whip, slapped in the face, and a journalist—Ali Farsab—who was attacked and prevented from doing his job.
This investigation identified several instances of protesters appearing to have been directly injured or killed, including videos showing seven fatalities, including a woman:
- A video shows a demonstrator shot in the eye. The sign for Al Awal Pharmacy is shown in the video. By matching the sign and other prominent landmarks with satellite imagery from Google Earth Pro, it can be confirmed that the pharmacy is on Al Azhari street in Bahri city. The Central Committee of Sudanese Doctors confirmed that Muzammil Al Junaid Suleiman (age 32) died of a gunshot wound to the eye. In another video Muzammil Al Junaid is shown inside the International Hospital.
Screenshots from a video showing Muzammil Al Junaid Suleiman after he was wounded near Al Awal Pharmacy on Al Azhari street.
A screenshot from a video showing Muzammil Al Junaid inside the International Hospital.
Screenshot from a video showing Al Awal Pharmacy on Al Azhari street compared with satellite imagery from Google Earth Pro on 10/16/2022.
Another video shows a white car with a group of protesters sitting next to a demonstrator who was shot in the chest. The protesters claim he died in the video.
The videographer states in the video: “November 17, Bahri Al Moasasa, with a gunshot wound on the right side of the chest.”
The Central Committee of Sudanese Doctors had announced the killing of 15 demonstrators that day, including four demonstrators who were shot in the chest.
A still from a video showing the killing of a protester with a bullet in the chest.
A video shows the injury of a demonstrator after the sound of gunfire near the Sahabat Rasoul Allah mosque on Al Zaim Al Azhari street in Bahri city. The video does not show the full extent of the demonstrator’s injury and his health condition.
Above are stills from a video showing the injury of a protester near the Sahabat Rasoul Allah mosque on Al Zaim Al Azhari street, below is a satellite image from Google Earth Pro on 10/16/2022.
In another video of the above incident, but taken from a different angle, soldiers can be seen wearing blue camouflage uniforms consistent with the uniforms of the Sudanese riot police. In the background, the videographer can be heard saying: “Firing live bullets at peaceful demonstrators… 17 November.”
Stills from another video of the same incident show the presence of riot police wearing blue camouflage uniforms on Al Zaim Al Azhari street.
A video, geolocated to near the “pixel” store on Al Zaim Al Azhari street in Bahri city, shows demonstrators and includes the apparent sound of gunfire. One of the demonstrators is heard in the video saying “do not hit,” meaning do not shoot.
No troops can be seen in this video, but it was taken in the same location as an earlier video, which depicted soldiers wearing matching blue camouflage riot police uniforms.
At second 0:49 in the video, a person in a blue jacket is seen with traces of blood on his head. Demonstrators are shown in the video carrying the individual. The video also shows traces of blood allegedly as a result of the injury. The account that posted the video wrote in a tweet that the young man in the video is Ahmed Ali and that the video shows the “moment of his soul’s elevation,” meaning his death. This is consistent with the report from the Committee of Sudanese Doctors, which stated “Ahmed Ali, 27 years old, died as a result of a bullet directly to the head.”.
Another video shows Ahmed Ali and a group of protesters running to the International Hospital. While a video shows the body of an individual with a face covered, it appears that this individual was Ahmed Ali because of the location of the injury.
Above are two screenshots from a video geolocated to Al Zaim Al Azhari street, using satellite imagery from Google Earth Pro on 10/16/2022.
A screenshot of a video showing the injury of Ahmed Ali on Al Zaim Al Azhari street in Bahri city.
Screenshot of a video showing the traces of blood after protesters carried Ahmed Ali from the scene.
Above is a screenshot from a video of Ahmed Ali carried by demonstrators, annotated to show the location of his injury. Below is a screenshot of another video of one of the victims in the hospital, which is likely the same person as they have the same injury.
A video, previously mentioned in this investigation, shows the shooting of a woman in Rabiata Shambat Square near Al Maouna street in Bahri city. The video also shows apparent tear gas smoke. The Central Committee of Sudanese Doctors confirmed that the victim is Sitt Al Nafur Ahmed Bakkar, who was shot in the jaw.
Screenshots from video posted by the account Sudanese Accounts showing the injury of Sitt Al Nafur Ahmed, who was later identified to have been killed, as well as satellite imagery from Google Earth Pro.
The International Community
The United States issued a statement condemning the violence witnessed at the Millions March on 17 November 2021. The statement said:
“ The United States strongly condemns the violent crackdown by security forces against peaceful protesters on November 17, which resulted in at least 15 deaths and scores of injuries. We express our condolences to the families of those who lost their lives. This follows several other instances of violence against peaceful protesters since the military seized power on October 25.”
In a statement issued on 25 November 2021, Amnesty International stated that the:
“ Security forces intensified the use of lethal force to counter organised protests in the capital Khartoum on 13 and 17 November, killing at least 23 people, according to the Sudanese Doctors’ Committee.”
The statement by Amnesty International added
“At least nine of the protesters killed on 13 and 17 November had died of wounds sustained from gunshots, including one by sniper fire. The organisation also confirmed that at least fifty people sustained gunshot wounds during the protests.”
In the same statement, Deprose Muchena, Amnesty International’s Regional Director for Eastern and Southern Africa, said:
“The escalation in the use of lethal force by the security authorities in Sudan in the past two weeks was calculated to intimidate and quell protests from the streets against a military takeover.”
Muchena called for a fair investigation, stating:
“The killing of dozens of unarmed protesters calls for a prompt, independent and impartial investigation to ensure accountability for the killings and other serious human rights violations allegedly committed by security forces,”
“Sudan’s security leaders are disregarding the right to life, peaceful protest, and shows contempt for legal norms governing the use of force.”
Of the 17 videos that document the demonstrations on 17 November 2021, 11 videos include characteristics indicating the presence of Sudanese forces at the site of the attacks. Four videos include features suggesting the presence of riot police in blue camouflage, four videos include features suggesting the presence of Sudanese police in light blue uniforms, and three videos include features suggesting the presence of Central Reserve Forces in desert camouflage. Two videos show individuals in plainclothes who appear to work with security forces and police.
One of the videos shows the three forces present on Al Siteen street and another video also showing Al Siteen street features the Central Reserve Forces and riot police together. Two videos from Bahri show observable characteristics of riot police appearing alongside Sudanese police.
Videos documenting the violence on 17 November 2021 indicate the use of force against protesters. In identifying uniforms, vehicles, weapons, and equipment in the videos showing the incident and comparing them with media reports, official accounts of Sudanese police forces, and the Camopedia website, it is likely that those responsible for the violence in 17 November 2021 were riot police in blue camouflage uniforms, Central Reserve Forces in desert camouflage uniforms, and Sudanese police forces in light blue uniforms.
Additionally, a video shows police officers wearing light blue uniforms. The police officer is shown in their uniform, squatting, aiming, and then shooting with an automatic rifle. Behind the officer in the video were eight other policemen. The incident occurred on Al Zaim Al Azhari street. Five police cars are also shown in the video.
The top two images are two screenshots from a video showing officers wearing light blue uniforms on Al Azhari street near the Ze Mac store. Below is a screenshot from a video of a group of officers wearing the same blue uniforms at the intersection of Al Azhari street. The red square indicates the police officer pointing a weapon at the opposite end of Al Azhari street. The yellow square indicates the other police officers.
Screenshot from Google Earth Pro (June 2022) with the landmarks featured in the previous image above including: The red square indicating the police officer pointing a weapon at the opposite end of Al Azhari street and the yellow square indicating the location of other police officers.
Above are two screenshots from a video showing officers wearing light blue uniforms. Below is a picture from the Sudanese Police Facebook page showing officers in a light blue uniform.
The police cars that are shown in the same video clip were at Al Moasasa station, about 160 metres away from the place where Muzammil Al Junaid was wounded at Al Awal Pharmacy on Al Azhari street with a bullet in his eye.
A screenshot from a video showing five cars.
A screenshot of Google Earth Pro (June 2022) showing the distance between Al Awal Pharmacy and the location of forces at the intersection of Al Azhari street and Al Maouna street.
Geolocated videos of Bahri city show Sudanese police forces stationed at the intersection of Bahri Al Moasasa and Al Azhari street and along Al Maouna street to Al Rabiata Shambat Square. The map shows the distance between Bahri Al Moasa and Al Rabiata Square is about 914 metres.
Screenshot of Google Earth Pro (June 2022) showing the distance between Al Rabiata Shambat Square and the intersection of Al Zaim Al Azhari street and Al Maouna.
Another video shows what appears to be riot police in dark blue camouflage uniforms hitting a person and dragging him to the ground. The riot police beat the individual for 35 seconds with Sudanese police in light blue uniforms standing next to them. Later, the Al Rukuba media outlet identified the individual beaten as journalist Ali Farsab. The video was geolocated to Maa Al Dahab Perfumes in Bahri city. The incident was less than 100 metres from the previous video.
Two screenshots from a video showing riot police at Maa Al Dahab Perfumes in Bahri city hitting a person, then dragging him to the ground and beating him for 35 seconds
A geolocation of a video showing riot police at Maa Al Dahab Perfumes in Bahri city. This incident occurred less than 100 metres from the previous video. Satellite image date: 10/16/2022
Despite these clips that reveal the violence on 17 November, 2021 that the Million March was subjected to, the Sudanese Ministry of Interior held a press conference in which it denied that its forces had fired on the demonstrators. The Director of the Police Forces in Khartoum State, Lieutenant General Zain Al-Abidine Osman, said in the conference broadcast by the Sudan News Agency (SUNA)
The security forces did not use bullets to disperse the demonstrators, but only used tear gas
adding that a committee has been formed to determine the number of dead in the demonstrations and the areas of which the incidents took place. The police stressed that they will take appropriate action against any military personnel involved in the attack on citizens, adding that police stations recorded one death and questioned the medical reports that documented 15 martyr victims.
Lieutenant General Khaled Mahdi, Director General of the Sudanese Police Forces, added at the press conference:
“The police will investigate the circumstances of deaths in demonstrations in Khartoum, and he questioned the statistics provided by the Central Committee of Sudanese Doctors(CCSD).”
Mahdi acknowledged that the individuals in civilian clothes belong to the police:
“The police do not use firearms in the demonstrations, and the elements in civilian clothes who are accompanied by the police forces in the demonstrations belong to different units within the police service.”
Lieutenant General Abdel-Fattah Al-Burhan accused police officers of being behind the killings, through statements in an interview with the British newspaper “Financial Times”:
“What happened may have been done by some elements within the police and militants linked to political parties, and that the dead were not killed by the Army or the Rapid Support Forces.”
(The Rapid Support Forces is a militia headed by his deputy, Mohamed Hamdan Dagalo, known as “Hemeti”).
Use of force under international law
The Sudanese Archive has consulted with legal experts to better understand ways in which the use of force and certain weapons could constitute violations of international law in the context of protests and demonstrations.
The use of force, including the use of less-lethal weapons such as teargas for the purposes of crowd control, is legitimate only when necessary and proportionate. Indiscriminate use of teargas and other less-lethal crowd control methods can constitute excessive use of force. In line with international standards, teargas should only be used when necessary to prevent imminent physical harm and should not be used as a first resort to disperse nonviolent demonstrations. Security forces and law enforcement should issue audible, adequate warnings before using teargas, and should avoid exacerbating the situation. Additionally, security forces should avoid targeting enclosed spaces with teargas, including spaces where protesters are trapped behind barricades
The use of live ammunition and/or lethal force when there is no imminent threat to life or imminent risk of serious injury violates international human rights standards. Intentional lethal use of firearms may be made only ”when strictly unavoidable in order to protect life,” and firearms should never be used merely to disperse a peaceful assembly. Security forces must make every effort to minimise damage and injury at all times by using only the minimum level of force necessary, including by refraining from the indiscriminate use of live fire and intentional targeting of protesters’ heads and chests. Sporadic violence by some protesters that is not an immediate threat to life, such as throwing rocks or kicking tear gas canisters at security forces, does not justify the use of lethal force by security forces and law enforcement.
An analysis of a variety of open source documents shows that acts of violence and human rights violations against demonstrators were committed on 17 November 2021 in Bahri city and Al Siteen street in Khartoum. The use of live ammunition and tear gas against demonstrators resulted in the death of 15 people, including a woman, in addition to injuries.
The investigation identified several similar or identical patterns of violence against protesters on 30 October 2021, 30 December 2021, and 17 January 2022.
Available open source information, including videos showing forces participating in violence against demonstrators, point to the Central Reserve Forces, riot police, Sudanese police, and plainclothes collaborators as likely responsible for violence against demonstrators.