Sudanese Archive
Sudanese Archive


Violence in Khartoum on January 17, 2022 anti-coup protest

March 30, 2022

Documentation of coordinated riot police and Central Reserve Forces, dozens injured, seven killed

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The Sudanese Archive investigative team has verified thirty one video clips documenting security forces using excessive force against peaceful demonstrators. On January 17, 2022, peaceful demonstrators took to the streets in mass demonstrations in the capital, Khartoum, which the state's resistance committees coordinators called for to demand the "formation of a civilian government." The actions of security forces on that day resulted in the killing of seven people, according to the Central Committee of Sudan Doctors, and dozens of others sustained injuries.

Sudan has experienced protests since October 25, 2021, when army commander Abdel Fattah al-Burhan overthrew the civilian transitional government headed by Abdallah Hamdok. The civilian government was formed in 2019 after the overthrowing of former President Omar al-Bashir, months after the Sudanese revolution. The revolution was met with excessive force, as has been verified by the Sudanese Archive in previous investigations.

Here we verified thirty one videos, revealing violence against anti-coup protesters. The Sudanese Archives matched the landmarks in all 31 videos, with satellite imagery and Google Maps, to accurately determine their geographical location. The satellites revealed to us five geographical locations in the state of the capital, Khartoum, which are “Al-Qasr Street, Katrina Street, Sharwani Bus Station, Al-Qurashi Park, and Al-Ghali Gas Station.” The team also used the analysis of the shadows of the sun’s rays to find out the approximate time of the occurrence of these crimes, which were revealed to us by open sources.

The mass demonstrations of the sons of the Sudanese revolution, which set its destination to the presidential palace, began with the sound of chants, including "The revolution is a people's revolution, and the military is for the barracks" in a scene that was not absent from the women's presence, and at about two o'clock in the afternoon, according to what the shadows of the sun's rays analyzed, began Excessive acts of violence against demonstrators, including tear gas and shooting, and video clips revealed joint Sudanese security cooperation between the Central Reserve Forces and the riot police, in the second bloodiest day, as described by Human Rights Watch since the coup.

There were reports of violence across the country and in numerous locations within Khartoum , Omdurman and Bahri ; Sudanese Archive is working to verify these reports. This investigation verifies only a small number of incidents in Khartoum, the capital.Specifically, we verified around 31 video files, and reviewed many others that were posted on social media or shared with us directly. The verified videos and photos include:

  • Large crowds of peaceful protesters in the streets
  • Tear gas fired directly at demonstrators
  • The sounds of gunfire
  • Victims bleeding from injuries likely to be live bullets
  • Coordination between the Central Reserve Forces, identified by their beige camouflage uniforms, and Riot Police, wearing blue camouflage uniforms
  • Video clip showing people in uniform aiming directly at protesters
  • Victims being transported to hospital and in hospital

The violence on Jan. 17, 2022 resulted in the killing of seven people, according to the Central Committee of Sudan Doctors and dozens of people sustained injuries from live bullets and other tools of repression.

What happened, when, and where?

Three livestream videos allow Sudanese Archive to confirm that protesters were marching along Al Qasr Avenue, and were later injured amid sounds of gunfire and the launching of tear gas. These livestreams allow us to also corroborate several other videos - both those shared on public channels and on private accounts - that show violence and injuries occurring at the same location along Al Qasr Avenue, between Army Avenue and the medical campus of the University of Khartoum to the north, and the train tracks and Sharwani bus station to the south. As well, other videos help to indicate where security forces were based, as they began pushing the protesters back.


We are able first to confirm the key locations using one video of protesters that reveals several key landmarks that can be matched to satellite imagery and to other videos from the same place. This 45 second video shared on Twitter shows a pan across the junction, from the medical campus of the University of Khartoum on the left, with its distinct rounded roof, to a unique black sign fixed to a rounded metal bar crossing the left part of Al Qasr Avenue, over to the Central Blood Bank and Stack Medical Lab on the right, eastern, side of the junction. The camera then pans south, back toward the origin of the protest, showing the open area crossing train tracks.

In another 45 second video posted to Twitter, protesters have stopped at the Al Qasr junction with Army Avenue, beside the medical campus of the University of Khartoum. The video was posted on Jan. 17, 2022, at 2:26 p.m. Khartoum time. Shadow analysis confirms the video was likely filmed between 2 and 2:30 p.m. on that date. In the video, teargas canisters can be seen flying through the air toward the cluster of protesters. At one point, several protesters rush backward, covering their faces. The video contains the sound of gunfire, which is likely to be the launching of the teargas canisters. Water can also be seen spraying from the right side of the frame, likely from the water truck seen in other videos filmed at the same location.


The Sudanese Archive identified a moment of an apparent shooting in which at least seven people appear to have suffered injuries. We were able to make this identification using a video livestream shared on Facebook, as well as corroborating information.

The visual evidence

Around 7 minutes into one livestream video, at approximately 14:24, there is a harsh sound of gunfire and one person can be seen dropping to the ground on the left side of the video screen. It’s not clear the nature of his injuries, but others immediately rush to him to assist. The man, who is shirtless with a white strap around his chest, a blue helmet and scarf, and green camouflage capri pants, is then carried away.

Shortly after that, at 7:16 minutes into the livestream, another person is seen being carried in the same direction, away from the northern junction known to have security presence, and across the train tracks. This person is wearing long blue trousers. It’s not clear the nature of their injuries.

Then several other victims - at least five - are seen hobbling or being taken away. One person walks, clutching their right elbow. One man is slouched over on the back of a motorcycle. Another hobbles, with a hand on their right leg. That person is shirtless, with a red bandana and blue or black trousers. Shortly after, two others pick him up and assist in carrying him south. Another person is carried away in a makeshift stretcher, with their knees bent. That person is wearing black trousers and a yellow or white shirt. There is a small red spot on the shirt. The person looks up briefly as they are carried by. One another person who appears conscious is carried by two people. This person, also in black tight trousers, has their arms wrapped around the shoulders of those carrying him. He is wearing a white shirt and goggles. It’s unclear the nature of these people’s injuries, however all come just after a short burst of gunfire sounds. All these people are seen being carried or taken away before the 8 minute mark of the livestream video - just one minute after the sound of gunfire can be heard.


The Sudanese Archive also documented the presence of Riot Police and Central Reserve Forces, as well as their vehicles and equipment, along with indications of the unlawful use of teargas and crowd control tactics. This was done with a portion of a livestream video, corroborated by other documentary forms of evidence.

The visual evidence

At 2 minutes and 41 seconds of a livestream video shared on Facebook, something can be seen launching from near a vehicle, with a white smoke line following behind it. After more launching of what appears to be tear gas, the person filming retreats.

They are standing slightly west of Al Qasr Avenue, in the dirt ground through which runs the train tracks, just south of Army Avenue. From here, the video shows another large security vehicle, which looks like a water truck, also painted in dark blue camouflage, spraying water. The protesters then approach the vehicle more closely, where several uniformed security forces in the same colours affiliated with the riot police can be seen. At this time, protesters can also be seen throwing rocks toward the security forces, and ducking as what look like tear gas canisters fly past them.

In this incident there are indicators of the disproportionate use of force and indicators of the unlawful use of teargas and crowd control tactics.

At around 7 minutes into the same livestream, at around 15:32, a new group of security forces can be seen entering behind a train track marker. These people are dressed in beige uniforms, carrying long sticks, and wearing gray helmets. Some hold shields. Most of the uniforms appear to be a beige camouflage, however a few are solid coloured. These people appear to be affiliated with the Central Reserve Forces. This is determined by comparing their uniforms and equipment with the official account, with media representations, with Camopedia, and is also corroborated by witness testimony and reports from the day, including this from Human Rights Watch.

At this point, the person filming retreats further south, across the field with train tracks, just west of the trees lining Al Qasr Avenue. When they turn back, the security forces dressed in beige can be seen beside the blue camouflage vehicle and a few people in those blue camouflage uniforms. This is an indicator the police and Central Reserve Forces were coordinating on the day.


At 8 minutes and 37 seconds, or what should be at 15:34, the camera pans left to show a man in the same beige uniform aiming a weapon. White tear gas smoke can be seen on the ground in the area. The protesters retreat further south, as tear gas canisters fall just beside them.


At ten minutes into the livestream, a person in a beige uniform aims directly at the protesters and something can be seen near the weapon, appearing as though he shot. The protesters duck, but do not appear injured at this moment.


Another clear view of the uniformed security forces is in a 57 second video shared on Facebook on Jan. 17, 2022, posted at 15:44. In that video numerous people wearing beige camouflage uniforms and what look like gray helmets can be seen, many of whom are holding long sticks or batons and carrying shields - though these shields are not labelled police. These uniformed people are standing next to a train crossing sign, indicating they are moving south on Al Qasr Avenue, as they push the protesters further south as well, as corroborated by other videos at the same location. Protesters are seen running through the trees and along the street, amid the sound of gunfire, and amid the launching of apparent tear gas canisters. White smoke can be seen on the ground in several cases emitting from a small canister. According to shadow analysis, this video was likely also filmed around 2:30 to 3:30 p.m. that day, and the protesters are running alongside Al Qasr Avenue.


At this time, the security forces group together and move south down Al Qasr Avenue in large numbers, forcing the protesters further south. For the next few minutes, protesters run south, past the bus station, as the security forces also move closer, led by the large blue camouflage vehicle. Shadow analysis aligns with the livestream time, which would be just after 15:35. The protesters rush forward, throwing rocks and other projectiles toward the incoming security forces, as the vehicle turns perpendicular to the road and continues to shoot what appears to be tear gas from the vehicle.Shortly after, the security forces move toward the bus station. At one point, one security force sees the people hiding with the filmer, and seems to aim toward them.


The Sudanese Archive has documented one clearly injured protester who was present close to the front line with security forces. This documentation was done with three videos corroborating each other, and also other forms of documentation including reports and medical records.

The visual evidence

One video posted on Facebook at around 15:57 Khartoum time on Jan. 17, 2022 shows people carrying the body of a limp man with blood on his legs and lower abdomen. The protesters are carrying the limpless body over what look like roadblocks, which corresponds to other videos of Qasr Street on that day. The video begins with someone saying, “Million January 17, hit by live bullets.” The man, wearing a white shirt with bright colour patches on it over a dark blue shirt, and with beige cargo shorts, is also confirmed to have been at the front of the protest line on Qasr Street, facing security forces, in several other videos Sudanese Archive has seen. Those videos were shared on a private account, and as such the Sudanese Archive will not publish or link to them. However, those two videos - one posted at 14:35 and saying it’s from 14:15, and the other shared at 18:49 but apparently filmed earlier in the day - show the same man, in the same clothes, standing with a small group of protesters on Jan. 17, 2022.


At 16:45 minutes into the livestream, the security forces can be seen moving further south along Al Qasr Avenue, as the person filming takes shelter east of the road, behind some trees. As well, a 57 second Twitter video posted at 3:54 p.m. and a 29 second Twitter video posted at 3:56 p.m. on Jan. 17, 2022 both by the same account show similar security forces alongside Sherwani Bus Station. These again appear to be uniformed Central Reserve Forces and Riot Police vehicles. The CRF appear to be carrying weapons and batons. Again, this location corresponds to the trees lining Al Qasr Avenue near the Sharwani bus station and just south of the train tracks.



On Katarina Street in Khartoum State, the security forces dispersed large demonstrations that included thousands of peaceful demonstrators. Sudanese Archive investigators determined it’s likely this occurred between two and three in the afternoon, according to an analysis of the shadows of the sun's rays. The Sudanese Archive identified the site as Katarina Street by matching the landmarks shown in the video with satellite images and Google Maps.

We can hear the protesters in the video chanting: “Free revolutionaries, we will continue the journey, the authority is the authority of the people, and the military is for the barracks.”

Four videos, including a live broadcast of Al-Jazeera Mubasher, were verified by the Sudanese Archives team. These show a hit-and-run among the demonstrators after the security forces chased them with a barrage of tear gas canisters, and heard successive sounds of live bullets being fired.

The videos also show that a number of demonstrators were choked by the effects of tear gas, and in another video, a state of confusion occurred among the demonstrators due to the sound of strong gunshots, while the demonstrators looked at the tops of the roofs of buildings and one of them said that there were "snipers." The Sudanese Archive team could not verify that claim.

The visual evidence

Protesters are shown running in the direction of the videographer at 14, with thick white smoke flying in the background as they try to escape the smell of smoke that appears to be tear gas.

At the 42nd, a young man in a blue T-shirt appears and puts a white handkerchief over his nose, apparently to protect himself from the smell of gas that causes suffocation.

The videographer's lens moves to another side of Katarina Street, we can see him crossing to his right, to see large crowds of protesters running away amid the sounds of tear gas canisters being fired, everyone protecting their noses with different things, scarves and holders for example and some of them wearing helmets to protect their heads.

One minute and nineteen seconds, a wounded person appears. We were unable to determine the type of injury. A group of other demonstrators gathered around him in an attempt to help and take him to the hospital. After this scene, we can hear the sound of gunshots being fired amid a state of confusion. Despite this, there are chants of "free revolutionaries, we will continue the journey."


Eight seconds later, we see again thick smoke of tear gas, the gloating grip of everyone who seems to be in a state of anticipation, while more than one demonstrator appears draped in the Sudanese flag, one of them with blood on his flag.

In the third minute, we hear the sound of loud gunfire, repeated three times in a row. As people run, one of the demonstrators says: video “Up, people, up.” This is apparently in reference to the sound of gunfire coming from the top of the roofs of a building, proposing that it may be from snipers. The Sudanese Archive cannot confirm that detail.


In one video, posted on Twitter at 9:05 p.m. on Jan. 17, 2022, a person can be seen being carried as someone holds a cloth covered in blood to his head. The video was likely filmed in the late afternoon, as the shadows cross the street, but the sun can still be seen. The injured person says: “By God, do not kill us,” as the videographer repeats: “January 17.”

One minute-long video clip posted on Twitter at 5:17 p.m., and saying it’s from 5:08 p.m., shows the presence of riot police in blue camouflage uniforms in front of the south entrance to Qurashi Gardens. In the video those uniformed officers can be seen carrying weapons, and one crouches and aims toward protesters further south on the road. As well, three seconds before the end of the video, tear gas canisters can be seen clearly landing on the ground, after they were apparently thrown directly at the demonstrators.


One video, posted on Facebook at 19:54 on Jan. 17, 2022, and likely to have been filmed late in the evening that day, shows people carrying a limp man whose face is covered in blood. The man wears long black trousers and an olive-green long-sleeved shirt. He has longer curly hair and short facial hair. The video can be located on the street south from Qurashi Park, near Al Ghali petrol station, north of Al-Jawda Hospital. The street is covered in shadow, confirming the late afternoon/evening timing. At the end of the video, voices can be heard saying: "stay with us, Hassan." The 29 second video shows the injured man being taken to a motorcycle.

In another, 2:20 minute video shared on Twitter, we can see another angle of the people carrying this same injured man, in the green long-sleeved shirt, and placing him on a motorcycle. That video was shared around 5:03 p.m. on Jan. 17, 2022, again pointing to the incident happening in the late afternoon that day. We can see him placed on a motorcycle driven by a man in a white shirt, and held up by another man behind him in a black shirt with white stripes.

Later, another video shows the same man on a motorbike in a procession near a hospital. We can confirm it is the same man based on the colour of the white shirt of the driver of the motorcycle, and similar blood patterns on his shirt. As well, the victim is in the same olive green long-sleeved shirt, held by a man wearing a black shirt. The same video was also shared by the Resistance Committee on Twitter.


Sudanese Archive has determined that it is likely this victim is Hasan/Hassan Ibrahim, one of the people whose names and images were shared by the Resistance Committee and the CCSD in statements following the Jan. 17 violence. In this Twitter post by the resistance committee, it references Hasan Ibrahim. It references his death due to a “live bullet shot in chest.” As well, the statement from the CCSD lists “Hassan Ibrahim, in his twenties, killed by live bullets shot to pelvis and abdomen.” Another Twitter post, shared the next day, shows a photo from a previous protest of the same person, called Hassan Ibrahim, who looks similar to the victim in the above video.

Human Rights Watch also references this death in its report on the anti-coup protest violence, quoting a friend who was present during the shooting incident. “I heard a couple of gunshots. Suddenly, I felt a bullet hitting my arm. I looked at Hassan to tell him I was shot,” the HRW report says. “At that exact moment, Hassan shouted to me that he had been shot in the eye and I saw blood covering his head. I grabbed his hand and asked others to help me carry him away. All the way to the hospital I didn’t care about my own injury and hoped he would be fine. He wasn’t. He died later.”


The Sudanese Archive team documented four videos taken from the vicinity of the Al Ghali Gas station on Jan. 17, 2022, likely between 2:00 pm and 3:00 pm based on an analysis of the shadows seen.

The videos analysed by the Sudanese Archive team appear to show the presence of the Central Reserve Forces, who wear a beige uniform, and the Riot Police, who wear a "camouflaged blue" uniform, carrying weapons, in direct targeting of the peaceful demonstrators, in conjunction with the launching of a heavy barrage of tear gas canisters towards Demonstrators who took cover behind cardboard barricades, in an attempt to protect the "Al-Jawdah" hospital, to which the injured were taken. It is worth noting that the

Sudanese security forces raided health facilities and assaulted medical staff and patients. The World Health Organization said it had received 15 reports of attacks on health care workers and facilities since November 2021. According to the WHO Regional Director for the Eastern Mediterranean, Dr. Ahmed Al-Mandhari, the organization is following the escalating crisis with "great concern". He added: "Most of these attacks were committed against health care workers in the form of physical assault, obstruction, violent searches, psychological threats and intimidation."

The video shows others who put masks on their faces to protect themselves from the effect of tear gas, which causes suffocation cases of suffocation upon inhalation. Others throw stones and projectiles at the police and the armored vehicle.

By matching the sights shown in the video with satellite images and Google Maps, the Sudanese Archives identified the site as Al Ghaly Gas Station.

Visual evidence

In a 16-second video posted on Twitter, the Central Reserve forces are shown across the train tracks firing tear gas canisters and the sound of live bullets being clearly heard. In this video, there is a testimony of one of the demonstrators, and it appears that he who took the video himself says: "The January 17 million, 'Abu Tira' forces - which is the popular name for the Central Reserve Forces - fire live bullets at the demonstrators."


In a second video, crowds of protesters were shown in a state of hijack and fled from the same location after the Central Reserve Forces fired bullets and tear gas canisters. In this video, we hear a voice taken by him saying: "The January 17 million, very heavy shooting, very many injuries among young people, excessive repression by the forces of the revolutionary council of peaceful demonstrations here."


Through two other videos, while they were known as "the protectors of the injured," the demonstrators chanted slogans, including "the authority is the authority of the people, and the military is for the barracks."


And in the 16th second of the same video, we find the security forces using water tanks to dislodge the protesters, and we also see heavy smoke and tear gas canisters flying The video revealed in the second minute, the appearance of one of the soldiers of the Central Reserve Forces, carrying his weapon and aiming it at the demonstrators who are sheltering around a cardboard cover. Standing next to him to the hospital, but he died later.

In the same context, we hear the testimony of one of the demonstrators, in which he recounted the details of targeting Hajj Malik, quoting from his tongue: “Suddenly a soldier appeared carrying a Kalashnikov. We used to tell him we were shooting you, so that he was afraid, but he was aiming at us. We were protecting Al-Jawdah Hospital for fear of the injured, until it fell.” One of the demonstrators succumbed to a live bullet wound and died later. His name was Hajj Malik.

Legal context

The Sudanese Archive consults with legal experts to better understand the use of force and weapons that could constitute a violation of human rights in the context of protests and demonstrations. According to our legal contacts, the use of force, including the use of less-lethal weapons such as teargas for the purposes of crowd control, is legitimate only when necessary and proportionate. Indiscriminate use of teargas and other less-lethal crowd control methods can constitute excessive use of force. In line with international standards, teargas should only be employed when necessary to prevent imminent physical harm and should not be used as a first resort to disperse nonviolent demonstrations, such as during the protests on October 30, 2021. Security forces and law enforcement should also issue audible, adequate warnings before using teargas, and should avoid exacerbating the situation. Additionally, security forces should avoid targeting enclosed spaces with teargas, including spaces where protestors are trapped behind barricades.

The use of live ammunition and/or lethal force when there is no imminent threat to life or imminent risk of serious injury violates international human rights standards. Intentional lethal use of firearms may be made only “when strictly unavoidable in order to protect life,” and firearms should never be used simply to disperse a peaceful assembly. Security forces must make every effort to minimise damage and injury at all times by using only the minimum level of force necessary, including by refraining from the indiscriminate use of live fire and intentional targeting of protestors’ heads and chests. Sporadic violence by some protestors that is not an immediate threat to life, such as stone throwing or kicking of teargas canisters back at security forces, does not justify the use of lethal force by security forces and law enforcement.

Possible perpetrators

The primary perpetrators documented in the videos and photos we have preserved from Jan. 17, 2022 appear to be the Riot Police and Central Reserve Forces. We determined this through identification of uniforms, vehicles, weapons, and equipment seen in the above described videos, which were then compared with media representations, official accounts, camopedia, and reports of the perpetrators.

The Sudanese Archive has developed a standardised methodology for the identification of potential perpetrators. In each video reviewed in which potential perpetrators are visible, we identify any indicators of the following: uniforms known to be associated with specific military, police or armed groups, vehicles identified by a security force unit or known to be affiliated with a specific group, logos, insignias, and other symbols that can be directly linked with military, police or other armed groups.

According to a security expert, the wide-scale presence of security forces, pattern of violence and mixing of several forces together, denotes a centralized command and rules of engagement authorizing the use of firearms and teargas to achieve the suppression of the protests.


The Sudanese Archive has gathered visual documentation of at least 10 injuries and 2 deaths in the verified visual content presented in this report.

There are reports of many more injuries and seven deaths, according to the Central Committee of Sudan Doctors. The CCSD statement said all seven were killed of gunshot wounds, in the pelvis, chest, and abdomen. It named the seven victims as follows:

  • Siraj Abdullah Ahmed, 24 years old, was shot in the pelvis by a live bullet.
  • Yitzhak Adam Haroun, 31 years old, hit by a live bullet in the pelvis.
  • Othman Abdullah Al-Sharif Babiker, 40 years old, was hit by a live bullet in the pelvis and thigh. right hand.
  • Al-Hajj Malik Al-Hajj, 21 years old, was shot in the chest with live bullets.
  • Muhammad Nour (Bisho), 22 years old, was hit by live bullets in the left pelvis.
  • Hassan Ibrahim, in his twenties, was shot in the pelvis and abdomen.
  • Madawi Dia' El-Din Mohamed Ahmed El-Sheikh, 19 years old, was shot in the chest.

The Resistance Committee also shared two posts on Twitter showing the names and photos of those killed: a first one naming Hasan Ibrahim, Mohamed Noor (Bisho), Al Haj Malik Al Haj, and Othman Abdullah Al Sharif Babikir; and a second one naming Isaac Adam Haroun, Siraj Abdulla Ahmed, and Mudawi Dia El Din Mohamed Ahmed. These names were added to the list maintained by the committee documenting all deaths since the start of the coup.

Two videos shared on Twitter also document the victims in hospitals. These videos are very graphic, showing bodies of those injured laying on the floor in pools of blood. In the first video, share on Jan. 17, 2022 at 9:49 p.m., doctors can be seen doing CPR on a man wearing a shirt with white on top and a blue section in the middle - the same as a victim identified earlier in our documentation of those injured in the protests. The second video shows injured people sitting on benches and being moved on stretchers, as well as carried into the hospital.


This investigation documented several cases of violence that appear to target peaceful protests, use excessive force, tear gas and crowd control tactics, and violate human rights in Khartoum. The Sudanese Archive team identified incidents in which protesters were injured and killed, with indications of the use of live bullets. The investigative team verified videos that show people in blue camouflage uniforms affiliated with the Riot Police, and people in beige camouflage uniforms likely to be the Central Reserve Forces both working independently and appearing to be coordinating their movements.

The Sudanese Archives is working to preserve digital evidence for accountability for crimes committed against Sudanese citizens. If you have any material that may be useful to our archive or investigations, please contact us at info@sudanesearchive.org.


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